Seed Cone, Stage 1
Hudson Bay Regional Park
The scar-like umbo may contain a small, reflexed
apiculus (prickle) which is often deciduous.
The key answers below are taken from Conifers
& Catkin-Bearing Trees and Shrubs of Saskatchewan by George Argus,
Vernon Harms, Anna Leighton, and Mary Vetter. This book is published
jointly by Flora of Saskatchewan Association and Nature Saskatchewan.
Banksiana: Answers to key questions leading to this species.
Seed cones usually in pairs or
sometimes whorled, curved forward on branches, lanceoloid before
opening, ovoid when open; apophysis generally flat or depressed (or
enlarged on one side toward outer cone base); umbo unarmed or with
minute reflexed prickle; central and northern Saskatchewan. NOT
[Seed cones solitary or in pairs, spreading to recurved on branches,
lanceoloid to ovoid before opening, broadly ovoid to nearly globose when
open; apophysis +/- raised and those on mid to lower scales mostly much
domed, rhombic and cross-keeled; umbo mostly armed with a stubby or
slender prickle to 6 mm long; Cypress Hills.]
Pinus: Answers to key questions leading to this genus.
Needles on year-old and older branches
borne either in groups (fascicles) of 2 with each fascicle
scaly-sheathed at base at least when young, or in clusters of 12-25 on
short shoots with clusters not scaly sheathed. NOT [Needles
borne singly along branches, not in fascicles scaly-sheathed at base or
on short shoots.]
Needles in fascicles of 2 on dwarf
shoots, evergreen; scales of seed cones with thickened apical portion
(apophysis) bearing terminal or central, scar-like to raised umbo and
often a prickle or hook. NOT [Needles in clusters of 12-25 on
short shoots, deciduous; scales of seed cones without apophyses, umbos, and
Pinaceae: Answers to key questions leading to this family.
Leaves needle-like, alternate or
fascicled/clustered, shed individually from branchlets (usually shed as
fascicles in Pinus); seed cone scales imbricate; seed cones dry;
seeds adaxial and 2 per scale. NOT [Leaves needle-like or
scale-like, alternate, opposite or whorled, persistent on shoots,
shedding with branchlets with age; seed cone scales fused or imbricate;
seed cones berry-like (Juniperus) or dry (Thuja); seeds
adaxial or terminal and 1-20 per scale.]