Scales and Seeds
Hudson Bay Regional Park
This seed cone has partially opened exposing the
two seeds on the adaxial face of some of the scales.
The key answers below are taken from Conifers
& Catkin-Bearing Trees and Shrubs of Saskatchewan by George Argus,
Vernon Harms, Anna Leighton, and Mary Vetter. This book is published
jointly by Flora of Saskatchewan Association and Nature Saskatchewan.
Banksiana: Answers to key questions leading to this species.
Seed cones usually in pairs or
sometimes whorled, curved forward on branches, lanceoloid before
opening, ovoid when open; apophysis generally flat or depressed (or
enlarged on one side toward outer cone base); umbo unarmed or with
minute reflexed prickle; central and northern Saskatchewan. NOT
[Seed cones solitary or in pairs, spreading to recurved on branches,
lanceoloid to ovoid before opening, broadly ovoid to nearly globose when
open; apophysis +/- raised and those on mid to lower scales mostly much
domed, rhombic and cross-keeled; umbo mostly armed with a stubby or
slender prickle to 6 mm long; Cypress Hills.]
Pinus: Answers to key questions leading to this genus.
Needles on year-old and older branches
borne either in groups (fascicles) of 2 with each fascicle
scaly-sheathed at base at least when young, or in clusters of 12-25 on
short shoots with clusters not scaly sheathed. NOT [Needles
borne singly along branches, not in fascicles scaly-sheathed at base or
on short shoots.]
Needles in fascicles of 2 on dwarf
shoots, evergreen; scales of seed cones with thickened apical portion
(apophysis) bearing terminal or central, scar-like to raised umbo and
often a prickle or hook. NOT [Needles in clusters of 12-25 on
short shoots, deciduous; scales of seed cones without apophyses, umbos, and
Pinaceae: Answers to key questions leading to this family.
Leaves needle-like, alternate or
fascicled/clustered, shed individually from branchlets (usually shed as
fascicles in Pinus); seed cone scales imbricate; seed cones dry;
seeds adaxial and 2 per scale. NOT [Leaves needle-like or
scale-like, alternate, opposite or whorled, persistent on shoots,
shedding with branchlets with age; seed cone scales fused or imbricate;
seed cones berry-like (Juniperus) or dry (Thuja); seeds
adaxial or terminal and 1-20 per scale.]