Chenopodium Diana Bizecki Robson Key - Sask
This key was created by Diana Bizecki Robson (Robson, D.B. 2008, 'The Prairie Goosefoots', Blue Jay, vol. 66, no.2, pp. 82-95). I have added:
links to the species descriptions in Flora of North America
rarity/abundance information, taken from Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Saskatchewan by Vernon L. Harms. N - native, CC - very common, C - common, FC - fairly common, UC - uncommon, VUL - vulnerable, THR - threatened, END - endangered, EXT - possibly extirpated, ABS - absent, VER? - verification uncertain, IN - introduced, ADV? - possibly adventive, R - rare (applies to introduced species only).
1a. Calyx fleshy, red, and globular, resembling a small
1b. Calyx not fleshy, red, and strawberry-like (3)
2a. Leaf-like bracts present throughout the flower spike;
flowers maturing from base upwards; 1 stamen C.
foliosum (Leafy Goosefoot) ABS
2b. Leaf-like bracts present only in lower half of the flower spike; flowers maturing from top downwards; 3 stamens C. capitatum (Strawberry Blite) C
3a. Leaves mostly linear, occasionally linear-lanceolate or
oblong ovate, 2-3 times longer than wide or longer; entire or with two basal
3b. Leaves deltoid, rhombic, oblong or ovate; to 2 times longer than wide; entire, toothed or lobed (9)
4a. Leaves with 1 vein, blades linear, margins entire (5)
4b. At least the lower leaves with 3 veins from the base, blades linear to lanceolate, margins may have 2 basal lobes (6)
5a. Leaves glabrous to very sparsely farinose, fleshy; fruit a
utricle (with a loose, inflated pericarp); seeds 1.3-1.5 mm in diameter C.
subglabrum (Smooth Goosefoot) THR
5b. Leaves moderately to densely farinose, not fleshy; fruit an achene (with a close-fitting pericarp); seeds 0.9-1.2 mm in diameter C. leptophyllum (Narrow-Leaved Goosefoot) UC
6a. Sepals covering the fruit at maturity C.
dessicatum (Arid Goosefoot) UC
6b. Sepals not covering the fruit at maturity (7)
7a. Leaves 1.5-3 times longer than broad, lower surface almost
glabrous; glomerules in a loose panicle-like inflorescence; pericarp
atrovirens (Pinyon Goosefoot) END
7b. Leaves 3 times longer than broad, lower surface farinose; glomerules in dense spikes or panicles; pericarp smooth or warty (8)
8a. Fruit a utricle (with a loose, inflated pericarp); pericarp
smooth; seeds founded; lower leaves often with two prominent basal lobes or
pratericola (Desert Goosefoot) CC
8b. Fruit an achene (with a close-fitting pericarp); pericarp with small warts; seeds flattened; lower leaves entire C. hians (Gaping Goosefoot) THR
9a. Seeds vertical, or both vertical and horizontal (10)
9b. Seeds all horizontal (12)
10a. Plants perennial; sepals 5; seeds more than 1.5 mm in
diameter; fruits are achenes (with a close-fitting pericarp) C.
bonus-henricus (Fat Hen or Wild Spinach) ABS (a garden escape reported
10b. Plants annual; sepals 3 or 4; seeds less than 1.5 mm in diameter; fruits are utricles (with a loose, inflated pericarp) (11)
11a. Leaves farinose, the underside white; seeds
glaucum (Oak-Leaved Goosefoot) C
11b. Leaves glabrous, the underside not white or sparsely white, usually blackening upon drying; seeds smooth C. rubrum (Red Goosefoot) C
12a. Mature plants short, up to 25 cm high (13)
12b. Mature plants tall, up to 50 cm high (14)
13a. Plants up to 15 cm high when mature; fruit a whitened
achene (with a close-fitting pericarp); leaves with a fishy scent when
watsonii (Dakota Stinking Goosefoot) VUL
13b. Plants up to 25 cm high when mature; fruit a utricle (with a loose, inflated pericarp); leaves lacking a fishy scent C. incanum (Mealy Goosefoot) THR
14a. Flowers individually arranged in panicles; leaves blades
14b. Flowers in loose or dense glomerules; leaf blades usually farinose (16)
15a. Leaves wavy to toothed; seeds 1.3-1.9 mm in diameter C.
simplex (Maple-Leaved Goosefoot) C
15b. Leaves entire; seeds 0.8-1.3 mm in diameter C. polyspermum (Many-Seeded Goosefoot) IN, R/ADV?
16a. Seeds deeply honeycomb-pitted C.
berlandieri (Pit-Seed Goosefoot) CC
16b. Seeds warty or smooth (17)
17a. Leaves triangular; margins entire, lobed or toothed
17b. Leaves ovate to broadly ovate, rhombic or lanceolate; margins lobed or toothed (19)
18a. Leaf blades toothed and sometimes with basal lobes, older
leaves glabrous C.
murale (Sowbane Goosefoot) IN, VER?
18b.Leaf blades with basal lobes but not toothed; leaf blades usually farinose C. fremontii (Fremont's Goosefoot) C
19a. Leaf margins tapering to an acute apex; leaf blades stalked
and ovate, rhombic or lanceolate; seeds circular in outline C.
album (Lamb's Quarters) CC
19b. Leaf margins roughly parallel below the obtuse apex; leaf blades sessile and lanceolate to narrowly elliptic; seeds oval in outline C. strictum (Late-Flowering Goosefoot) N/IN?, UC